Matthew Gandy states that the modern city in (Western) Europe emerged as a spatial configuration in the 2nd half of the 19th century until the 3rd quarter of the 20th century. Within this process a hydrological transformation took place accompanied by a shift from small private systems of water supply and sewage to unified, integrated and often public forms. The bacteriological city initially developed as a communal project, was then driven by national interests and reached its peak during the 1950s and 1960s. Since a wave of privatization of state supply and disposal infrastructures it has been in disintegration. As a result, the bacteriological connection between water and civil rights dissolved and the notion has been lost, that the city is responsible for enabling certain basic needs for its citizens.